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The Long Shadow of 9 11. America's Response to Terrorism by Brian Michael Jenkins, John Godges

By Brian Michael Jenkins, John Godges

This e-book offers an array of solutions to the query, within the ten years because the 9-11 assaults, how has the USA replied? In a chain of essays, RAND authors lend a farsighted viewpoint to the nationwide discussion on 9/11?s legacy; determine the army, political, economic, social, cultural, mental, and ethical implications of U.S. policymaking considering that 11th of September; and recommend suggestions for successfully facing the terrorist possibility sooner or later.

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Afghan kings relied on them throughout history because they were effective. During the Musahiban Dynasty (1929–1978), the Pashtun arbakai (traditional village guards) in eastern Afghanistan maintained order successfully, without committing abuses, and protected Afghan control over a disputed border area with Pakistan. S. attempts to develop local defense forces illustrate the difficulty of balancing local and national priorities in Afghanistan. After 2001, as the Taliban turned to guerrilla war, various tribal communities formed arbakai on their own to combat them.

According to a 2010 public opinion poll published by the Lessons from the Tribal Areas 45 New America Foundation, more than three-quarters of the residents in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas oppose the presence of al Qaeda. A poll conducted by the Pew Research Center indicated that between 2001 and 2011, positive views of al Qaeda significantly declined across the Middle East and Asia, including in Indonesia, Jordan, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt, and Lebanon. There was widespread opposition to al Qaeda’s ideology and tactics, especially the practice of killing civilians, even among conservative Islamic groups.

And NATO forces are, but Afghans are particularly sensitive to the presence of foreign troops, and the killing of Afghans by foreigners generates disproportionate outrage. From the Afghan perspective, even a reduced number of their countrymen being killed by foreigners is unacceptable. S. military takes all sorts of precautions to avoid civilian casualties. S. troop surge was necessary and is working, citing as evidence considerable progress over the past year in driving the Taliban from targeted communities.

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